Immanuel Velikovsky compares the biblical accounts of the ten Plagues of Egypt with other stories and legends from all over the world, and it seems that all these stories speak about the same thing, here is a summary and passages from the book World in Collision.
Not only have disasters similar to those described in the Bible happened to other peoples on the planet, but also, later, we find the same testimonies of food falling from the sky, manna or ragweed.
Worlds in collision: The world cataclysm, Hurakan and Typhoon
Our two words to describe the worst weather phenomena, the hurricane and the typhoon, have their origins in this global disaster.
They call this event Taafanua. In Arabic, it's Tyfoon or Tufan, and Ty-fong in Chinese.
The Troano manuscript and other Mayan documents describe a giant cataclysm that affected the entire planet.
According to what is written there, the ocean fell on the continent, a terrible hurricane swept away all the cities and forests, there were also volcanic explosions, gigantic tornadoes, furious winds that changed the face of the earth after the entire mountain collapse and the birth of new ones.
It was the end of the age of the world, caused for the Mayan Indians by Hurakan (from this name comes the word Hurricane)
This Hurakan destroyed most of the human race and extinguished many animal species.
It is said in the manuscript that during this cataclysm, a kind of resin fell from the sky and fuelled the violent fires that ravaged everything in their path (manna).
For 5 whole days, except for erupting volcanoes and fires, the world was plunged into darkness and the sun did not appear.
The theme of the cosmic hurricane is repeated several times in the Hindu (Veda) and Persian (Avesta) books.
The book (Worlds in Collision) also mentions rabbinic texts that also dealt with the prodigiously violent westerly winds that lasted 7 days.
Here too, it is specified that the world was plunged into darkness. In addition to this there are hieroglyphic inscriptions in the tomb of El-Arish describing 9 days of upheaval that ended the Middle Empire.
Similarly, in the epic of Gilgamesh, which states that 6 days and a night, the flood and hurricane never stopped sweeping the earth and that humanity perished almost entirely.
Similarly in Maori legends:
"The strong winds and thick, dark clouds chased each other furiously in a terrible crash. They rushed to creation and within them was Tawhirima-tea, father of winds and storms.
Similar legends are known among the Paumotu indigenous people in Polynesia:
"When the new islands were fished, a star was used as bait."
They call this event Taafanua. In Arabic, it's Tyfoon or Tufan, and Ty-fong in Chinese.
In Japanese mythology, the sun goddess remained hidden for a long time in a heavenly cave, frightened by the storm God.
Other peoples are mentioned again:
Polynesians from Takaofo Island, Buddhists, Sumerians, Peruvians, Amerindians, Muslims, Syrians...
All this is reminiscent of certain events, such as the opening of the Red Sea for the Israelites, the Exodus in the Bible.
In all these cultures, the same things often happen again:
The wind, eruptions, the disappearance of the sun and the change in the "configuration" of the sky and stars. Velikovski thinks that the cause would be a comet whose head would have been as big as the earth and which would have passed to a sufficient proximity to it.
The tidal effect would then be multiplied tenfold and and the oceans would be lifted up from kilometres above.
This passage would also lead to a slowing down or even a complete stop of the earth's rotation.
Most of the traditions of these peoples insist on the fact that the waters were split, raised to a very high height and then fell back to the continents.
Geologically, this theory could explain several things.
In particular, in many parts of the world, especially in the North, huge blocks of stone stand in such a position that it would have taken a great deal of force to lift and transport them.
Sometimes these rocks are made of mineral compositions that are absolutely different from those of the surrounding rocks, but are similar to rock formations that are sometimes several kilometres apart.
Another similarity between many of these legends is the appearance of a very luminous star that followed the prolonged darkness.
It was spread out for scientists in the first half of the 19th century to associate all these things with huge tides.
But what phenomenon could have caused these famous tides?
The reason would be this famous comet.
The spectators of his passage saw it as a gigantic celestial battle, as the manifestation of the divine will.
It was visible from all parts of the world and was deeply imprinted on the imagination and culture of the peoples of the world.
When the earth passed through the gases, dust and meteorites of the comet's tail, it was hindered in its rotation and its orbit was deformed.
The head of the comet it apparently ignited after passing by the sun.
As a result of its proximity to the earth, the comet would have deviated from its orbit and for a time would have followed that of the earth.
The large globe moved away and then again approached, wrapped in dark gas resembling columns of smoke during the day, and columns of fire at night.
Then the earth once again crossed the tail of the comet. This time at the height of his neck. This part was accompanied by violent electric shocks between the atmosphere of the tail and that of the earth.
There was an interval of about 6 days between the two reconciliations. From this point on, it appears that the earth has changed its direction of rotation.
Many ancient writings tell us that when the tides reached their maximum height, a gigantic spark circulated between earth and sky which, instantly, caused the collapse of the suspended water masses.
Due to the proximity of the ground, the head and tail of the comet would have become entangled in exchanging violent discharges.
In the eyes of the people attending this show, it is normal to think that they believed in a real cosmic battle of the Gods.
The head and tail attracted and repelled each other. The globe of light and the giant column of smoke were fighting like a battle.
From the column of smoke that had the appearance of a snake were born (due to the dumps) branches that then gave it the appearance of a furious beast with several heads.
These "heads" then crashed into the earth as meteorites.
The globe of light seemed to have won the battle.
After this passage, the comet, which had meanwhile lost much of its electrical potential, moved away from the earth but did not tear itself away from its attraction.
It seems that an interval of a few weeks occurred before she returned a third and last time to the earth.
This last rapprochement could not really be observed because the earth had been veiled by thick clouds of dust that the volcanoes were ejecting.
After further discharges the comet and the earth finally separated.
When the Spaniards conquered Yucatan, some Indians knew the ancient literature of their people and told the conquerors about the tradition handed down by their ancestors: the latter had escaped the pursuit of another people when the Lord had opened a path for them in the middle of the sea.
This tradition is so similar to Jewish tradition that some monks who came to America believed that the American Indians were of Jewish origin.
Worlds in collision: the great celestial battle
At the same time as the seas were raging in monstrous tides, a spectacle was taking place in the sky, which in the eyes of the horrified spectators looked like a gigantic battle.
As it was visible from almost every part of the world and imprinted itself deeply in the imagination of the peoples, it is possible to reconstruct it with some details.
These phenomena have been interpreted by the peoples of the world as a struggle between an evil monster that had taken the form of a snake and the light god, who fought the monster and thus saved the world.
The tail of the comet leaping back and forth under the dumps of the flaming globe appeared to them as a distinct and hostile body.
The battles between Marduk and Tiamat the dragon, Isis and Seth, Vishnu and the snake, Krisna and the snake, Ormuzd and Abriman are all broadly similar.
Just like Zeus and Typhoon's.
"Typhoon was a dragon who fled when he was hit by Zeus' wrath, seeking an underground refuge."
This disaster would have occurred in the middle of the second millennium BC.
At that time, the Israelites had not yet reached a clear monotheistic conception, and like other peoples, they saw in this struggle a struggle between good and evil.
The author of the book of Exodus, in defiance of the conception of the first Israelites, interpreted the miracle of the column of fire and smoke as the appearance of an angel or a messenger of the Lord.
However, many passages from other books of scripture have preserved the very image of eyewitnesses.
Rahab is, in Hebrew, the name of the opponent of the very high:
"Lord God of hosts who is your equal? You trampled Rahab after you pierced him...... To you heavens, to you also the earth; you created the world and all that it contains; you made the north and the south".
"Wake up, wake up, find your strength, arm of the lord! Rise as in the old days, as in the old days. Didn't you crush Rahab and slay the dragon?
Didn't you dry up the sea and dry up the waters of the great abyss? You who made a way at the bottom of the sea to make the redeemed pass through it? »
From these passages it is clear that the Lord's battle with Rahab did not take place before creation, as some believe.
The "tortuous dragon" is represented in many ancient Chinese, Hindu, Persian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Mexican paintings.
According to Herodotus, the final act of the struggle between Zeus and Typhon took place near Lake Sirbon, on the coastal road that connects Egypt to Palestine.
Yet it was precisely on the road from Egypt to Palestine that the Israelites, after a terrible night with a strong easterly wind, witnessed the great upheavals of the day of the passage.
This coincidence leads to a conclusion that may seem somewhat strange.
Typhoon (Typheus) lies at the bottom of the sea where the astonished Israelites witnessed the tearing of nature: darkness, hurricane, mountains of water, fire and smoke, exactly the atmosphere in which, according to Greek legend, the battle between Zeus and the Typhoon dragon took place.
In the same marine abyss lie the pharaoh and his armies. Until now, we had identified Rahab-Typhon with a comet.
But if Typhon lies at the bottom of the sea, isn't he the Pharaoh?
This would imply that in the legend of Typhoon, two characters merge: the pharaoh who perished in the cataclysm and the furious opponent of Zeus, master of the sky.
In Pliny's "Natural History", in chapter 91 of Book II, we read:
"The peoples of Egypt and Ethiopia saw a terrible comet, to which Typhon, the king of that period, gave his name; it seemed like fire, twisted on itself and offered a terrifying spectacle.
It was less like a star than a kind of fireball.
Cometographia d'Hévélius (1668) Hévélius wrote in Latin:
"In the year of the world 2453 (1495 BC), according to some authorities, a comet in the form of a disc was seen in Syria, Babylon, India, under the sign Io, just as the Israelites were leaving Egypt in search of the Promised Land.
So does Rokenbach. Calvisius places the Exodus of the Israelites in the year of the world 2453, that is, 1495 B.C.".
Immanuel Velikovsky had the opportunity to discover in the United States, a copy of Rockenbach's "De cometis tractatus novus methodicus".
This book was published in Wittenberg in 1602. The author was professor of Greek, mathematics and law, and dean of the Faculty of Philosophy in Frankfurt. He made the following statement:
"In the year of the world 2453, a comet appeared, also mentioned by Pliny in his book II.
It looked like fire, had an irregular circular shape, and its head was veiled.
It had the shape of a globe and a terrifying aspect. It is said that King Typhon reigned at that time in Egypt.....
Some (authorities) claim that the disc-shaped comet was seen in Syria, Babylon, India, under the sign of Capricorn, as the children of Israel left Egypt for the Promised Land, guided by the column of cloud by day and the column of fire by night.
The collapse of the sky, the meteor shower and fire that fell from the sky, the very low clouds of exogenous dust and the displacement of the cardinal points made it seem as if the sky had collapsed.
Strabon reports by quoting Ptolemy, son of Lagus, general of Alexander the Great and founder of the Egyptian dynasty that bears his name, that Alexander asked the Celts, inhabitants of the Adriatic coast, what they feared most.
They replied that they feared nothing but the fall of the sky.
Manna or Ambrosia, that mysterious food that fell from the sky
"This world of nightmares, filled with darkness and moaning, afflicted all the senses, except the sense of smell: the air was perfumed. When the wind blew, the clouds brought a very sweet smell."
The papyrus Anastasi IV, written "in the year of misfortune", notes the upheaval of the months and describes the arrival of the planet God "preceded by an embalmed wind".
In a similar Hebrew text, we read that times and seasons were changed, and that a "fragrance embalmed the whole world", and it came from a column of smoke.
It looked like myrrh and incense. "Israel was wrapped in clouds," and as soon as the clouds moved, the winds "embalmed myrrh and frankincense.
The books of the Veda contain hymns to Agni, who "shines in the sky".
His perfume became the perfume of the earth: "This perfume of yours... Let the immortals of old gather".
Hindu traditions have immortalized this generation, which saw the star bring its perfume to the men of the world.
The Vedic anthem compares the scent of the divine star of Agni to the scent of the lotus.
How did this dark veil dissolve?
The air is overloaded with vapours, resulting in rain, hail, dew or snow.
It is very likely that the atmosphere will be released from its component elements, probably carbon and hydrogen, in a similar process.
Do some testimonies not reveal the existence of hydrocarbon precipitation during the long years of darkness?
"When the dew came down at night on the camp, the manna fell there too."
It looked like "frost on the ground".
It had the shape of coriander seed, the yellowish colour of bdellium, and the sweet taste of honey cake; the Israelites called it "the wheat of heaven".
They crushed it between the stones and made cakes out of it. (Exodus 16:14-34; numbers 11:7-9.)
The manna was falling from the clouds.
The night cooling caused the precipitation of hydrogen carbides that fell with the morning dew.
The grains liquefied in heat, and evaporated.
But put in a vacuum, the substance could be preserved for a long time (Exodus 16:21, 33-34.).
The exegetes sought an explanation for the phenomenon of manna.
They were helped in their endeavours by naturalists, who discovered that tamarisk seeds from the Sinai desert fall in certain months of the year.
But why this seed would be called "wheat of Heaven", "bread of Heaven", and why would it be said: "It will rain bread from heaven" (Exodus 16:4).
It is not easy to explain how crowds of people and animals could have lived for years in the middle of the desert from the rare seasonal seeds of a desert shrub.
If this were the case, the desert should be preferred to the arable land, which only bears fruit against human sweat.
The Talmud also reports that the clouds brought the heavenly bread.
But if the manna came from the clouds that enveloped the whole world, it must not have fallen on the Sinai desert alone, but everywhere.
Other peoples had to taste it, talk about it in their traditions.
Icelandic tradition claims that there was a world conflagration, followed by the Fimbul winter, and that only one human couple remained alive.
"This couple hid in a wood during Surt's fire."
then came "the terrible winter Fimbul, at the end of the world (age); during all this time, they lived off the morning dew, and from them was born the multitude that populates the regenerated earth".
The Icelandic tradition therefore reveals the same three elements, already found in the Israeli tradition: world blaze, winter and darkness that lasted several years, morning dew that serves as food during the long night when the Earth was barren.
The Maori of New Zealand speak of wild winds, impetuous clouds, which unleashed tidal waves as high as the sky, and which were accompanied by furious hail falls.
The ocean fled; the offspring of the storm and hail were
"the mist, the thick dew, and the light dew." After the cataclysm,
"only an islet of earth emerged from the ocean. Then the light gradually spread over the world, and the beings who were hidden between (heaven and earth) before they were separated, were now multiplying.
The Maori tradition contains essentially the same elements as the Jewish narratives:
destruction of the world accompanied by hurricanes, hail, waves as high as the sky; submergence of the continent; veil of mist long spread over the earth; fall of heavy dew at the same time as light dew, just as in the passage of the book of numbers (11, 9).
Buddhist texts report that when a cycle (of the world) ends with the destruction of the world and the drying up of the ocean, there is no longer any distinction between day and night, and celestial ragweed serves as food (Warren, Buddhism in translations, p 322).
In the hymns of Rig-Veda, it is said that honey (madhu) falls from the clouds.
These clouds came from the cloud column.
Among the Athava-Veda hymns, there is one dedicated to the honey shower:
"From the sky, the earth, the air, the sea, the sea, the fire and the wind, the rain of honey has sprung forth: this one, clothed in amrite (ambrosia), all creatures worship her and cheer her in their hearts" (Hymns of the Atharra-Veda, p 229, Rigveda I, 112).
In Egypt, the Book of the Dead cites the "divine clouds and the great dew" that bring the Earth into contact with the heavens.
The Greeks called this heavenly bread ambrosia.
Greek poets describe it in the same terms as manna: "it tasted like honey and was fragrant".
This bread from heaven has been a real headache for classical scholars.
Greek writers, since Homer and Hesiod, have not ceased, for centuries, to sing the ragweed, food from Heaven which in its liquid state is called nectar.
It also served as an ointment (Iliad XIV, 170), an ointment with a lily scent, and as food for Hera's horses, when she visited Zeus in her Olympus.
Hera (the Earth) was veiled when she left her brother Ares (Mars) to run to Zeus (Jupiter).
What could it be, this heavenly bread that veiled the planet goddess, and also served as an ointment? Honey, some scholars have claimed.
But honey is the ordinary food of mortals, while ragweed was reserved for the race of heroes.
So what was this mysterious substance, which was used as fodder for horses, as sail for planets, as heavenly bread for heroes, as a drink when it became liquid and as perfumed oil for ointments?
It was this same manna that baked in the oven, became bread, and tasted like honey; it covered the ground, where animals and men found it;
it wrapped the Earth and celestial bodies in a veil;
it was called "wheat of heaven", "bread of the mighty"; it was perfumed, and in the desert served as ointment for women.
Manna like Ambrosia was compared to honey and morning dew.
Aristotle and other writers' belief that honey fell from the sky with dew was based on the memory of the time when the carbon veil spread over the Earth rushed in the form of dew and honey.
The Kalevala describes its clouds as "formidable shadows" and from these shadows, says the epic poem, fell honey. "From their heavenly abode... the clouds filtered their perfume as they filtered honey" (Le Kalevala (trad Crawford) p XVI and Rune 9).
The Maori in the Pacific, the Jews on the border of Asia and Africa, the Hindus, the Finns, the Icelanders, all describe the honey miraculously fallen from the dreaded clouds where the shadow of death slipped, and which enveloped the Earth after the cosmic cataclysm.
All traditions agree that a celestial body was at the origin of this rain of celestial bread, which the clouds spread with the morning dew.
The Sibyl proclaims that the sweet heavenly bread fell from the starry skies.
The God-planet Ukko, or Jupiter, was the source of this honey that fell from heaven. Athena covered other planet goddesses with an "ambrosia dress" and dispensed the nectar of ambrosia to the heroes.
The rivers of milk and honey This solid dew spread in enormous quantities. The Hagadah states that the amount that fell each day would have been enough to feed men for 2000 years (Midrash Tehillim on Psalms 23).
All the peoples of East and West saw the phenomenon. A few hours after dawn, the heat accumulated under the veil of clouds liquefied the solid plots, and volatilized them (Exodus 16:21).
The soil absorbed part of this liquid mass, as it absorbs dew. This dew also fell on the water, and the rivers took on a milky appearance.
The Egyptians report that for a time, the water from the Nile was mixed with honey.
The appearance of the rivers of Palestine was so strange (in the desert, the Israelites had not encountered any rivers) that the men sent for reconnaissance described it upon their return as a country where "honey and milk flow" (Numbers 13:27).
"Oil rains from the heavens, honey flows through the wadis," says a text found in Ras-Shamra (Ugarit) in Syria.
In rabbinical literature, it is said that "the molten manna formed rivers, where deer and many other animals were quenched".
The Atharva-Veda anthem states that the honey rain came from fire and wind.
Ragweed fell and rivers of honey flowed over the Earth. "the Great Earth processed for us the precious honey... we poured the milk into rich streams" (Ode to the goddess Earth Atharra-Veda).
The Finnish tradition reports that the Earth was covered successively with black, red and white milk.
The first and second colors were those of the substances, ash and "blood", which constituted the wounds (Exodus 7 and 9); the last is the color of ambrosia, which transformed into nectar on earth and in water.
Ovid also recalls a time when "rivers of milk and rivers of sweet nectar flowed" (Metamorphoses, I, III, 112).
Presentation of the book Worlds in Collision by P. Jovanovic
Source: the book Worlds in Collision (Immanuel Velikovsky); bistrobarblog.blogspot.com/ ; Illustration : The Ten Wounds, Painting by John Martin (1823)[/su_note]
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